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Archipelago (2021)

In 2020 when the world was paralysed by the pandemic, the Nusantara Archive had greatly bolstered the connection between art communities between Taiwan and Singapore with a specific focus on the Malay Peninsula. In the 2021 edition of TWINNING ARCHIPELAGO, the Nusantara Archive has expanded its interest to develop a topological imagination of archipelagos.

Archipelago (2021)

The first ornithological field guide covering the vast chain of the Indonesian archipelago has been completely revised following years of meticulous research. This second edition now encompasses over 2,800 illustrations, including 325 entirely new figures and nearly 500 alterations to the original artwork, supplemented by 1,350 maps of all regularly occurring species. The species are mapped with improved accuracy by including three magnified geographical regions, or by a larger archipelago-wide map frame. The book describes all 1,456 bird species known to occur in the region, including 628 endemics, 106 vagrants, 4 introduced species and 10 species yet to be formally described. Together these represent over 13% of global bird diversity. Importantly, all subspecies are described in detail.

Some of that which is not covered in maps, is given in the introductory text on geography, conservation and ornithological history of the archipelago, along with a thoughtful exposition of the authors perspective on taxonomy. They have made some bold, landmark decisions on names. Reading these essays is its own reward.

How much does natural selection, as opposed to genetic drift, admixture, and gene flow, contribute to the evolution of invasive species following introduction to a new environment? Here we assess how evolution can shape biological invasions by examining population genomic variation in non-native guppies (Poecilia reticulata) introduced to the Hawaiian Islands approximately a century ago. By examining 18 invasive populations from four Hawaiian islands and four populations from the native range in northern South America, we reconstructed the history of introductions and evaluated population structure as well as the extent of ongoing gene flow across watersheds and among islands. Patterns of differentiation indicate that guppies have developed significant population structure, with little natural or human-mediated gene flow having occurred among populations following introduction. Demographic modeling and admixture graph analyses together suggest that guppies were initially introduced to O'ahu and Maui and then translocated to Hawai'i and Kaua'i. We detected evidence for only one introduction event from the native range, implying that any adaptive evolution in introduced populations likely utilized the genetic variation present in the founding population. Environmental association tests accounting for population structure identified loci exhibiting signatures of adaptive variation related to predators and landscape characteristics but not nutrient regimes. When paired with high estimates of effective population sizes and detectable population structure, the presence of environment-associated loci supports the role of natural selection in shaping contemporary evolution of Hawaiian guppy populations. Our findings indicate that local adaptation may engender invasion success, particularly in species with life histories that facilitate rapid evolution. Finally, evidence of low gene flow between populations suggests that removal could be an effective approach to control invasive guppies across the Hawaiian archipelago.

The Boston Harbor Islands have been called Boston's "hidden shores." While some are ragged rocks teeming with coastal wildlife, such as oystercatchers and harbor seals, others resemble manicured parks or have the appearance of wooded hills rising gently out of the water. Largely ignored by historians and previously home to prisons, asylums, and sewage treatment plants, this surprisingly diverse ensemble of islands has existed quietly on the urban fringe over the last four centuries. Even their latest incarnation as a national park and recreational hub has emphasized their separation from, rather than their connection to, the city.In this book, Pavla Šimková reinterprets the Boston Harbor Islands as an urban archipelago, arguing that they have been an integral part of Boston since colonial days, transformed by the city's changing values and catering to its current needs. Drawing on archival sources, historic maps and photographs, and diaries from island residents, this absorbing study attests that the harbor islands' story is central to understanding the ways in which Boston has both shaped and been shaped by its environment over time.

An international team of researchers has found evidence that people lived on islands in the Azores archipelago approximately 700 years earlier than prior evidence has shown. In their paper, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group describes their study of sediment cores taken from lakes on some of the islands in the archipelago. googletag.cmd.push(function() googletag.display('div-gpt-ad-1449240174198-2'); ); Due to the absence of other evidence, historians have believed that people first arrived in the Azores in 1427, when Portuguese sailor Diogo de Silves landed on Santa Maria Island. Soon thereafter, others from Portugal arrived and made the archipelago their home. In this new effort, the researchers found evidence that humans were living on some of the islands in the Azores approximately 700 years earlier.

The findings present strong evidence of humans inhabiting the archipelago hundreds of years before the Portuguese arrived. The researchers theorize that they were likely Norse seafarers, noting their accomplishments in sailing up and down the coasts of many parts of Europe. More information:Pedro M. Raposeiro et al, Climate change facilitated the early colonization of the Azores Archipelago during medieval times, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2021). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2108236118Journal information:Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 041b061a72

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